On a broad sense most commonly used algorithmic strategies are Momentum strategies, as the names indicate the algorithm start execution based on a given spike or given moment. The algorithm basically detects the moment (e.g spike) and executed by and sell order as to how it has been programmed.

One another popular strategy is Mean-Reversion algorithmic strategy. This algorithm assumes that prices usually deviate back to its average.

A more sophisticated type of algo trading is a market-making strategy, these algorithms are known as liquidity providers. Market Making strategies aim to supply buy and sell orders in order to fill the order book and make a certain instrument in a market more liquid. Market Making strategies are designed to capture the spread between buying and selling price and ultimately decrease the spread.

Another advanced and complex algorithmic strategy is Arbitrage algorithms. These algorithms are designed to detect mispricing and spread inefficiencies among different markets. Basically, Arbitrage algorithms find the different prices among two different markets and buy or sell orders to take advantage of the price difference.

Among big investment banks and hedge funds trading with high frequency is also a popular practice. A great deal of all trades executed globally is done with high-frequency trading. The main aim of high-frequency trading is to perform trades based on market behaviors as fast and as scalable as possible. Though, high-frequency trading requires solid and somewhat expensive infrastructure. Firms that would like to perform trading with high frequency need to collocate their servers that run the algorithm near the market they are executing to minimize the latency as much as possible.

Adaptive Shortfall

Adaptive Implementation Shortfall algorithm designed for reduction of market impact during executing large orders. It allows keeping trading plans with automatic reactions to price liquidity.

Basket Trading

Basket Orders is a strategy designed to automated parallel trading of many assets, balancing their share in the portfolio’s value.

Bollinger Band

Bollinger bands strategy is a trading algorithm that computes three bands – lower, middle and upper. When the middle band crosses one of the other from the proper side then some order is made.

CCI (more…)

Federal Reserve acts on a Sunday evening to slash rates to near zero

Federal Open Market Committee

  • cut interest rates for the second time in less than two weeks
  • emergency move
  • “The effects of the coronavirus will weigh on economic activity in the near term and pose risks to the economic outlook. In light of these developments, the Committee decided to lower the target range
  • The Committee expects to maintain this target range until it is confident that the economy has weathered recent events and is on track to achieve its maximum employment and price stability goals”
Headlines via Reuters:
  • fed cuts interest rates to near zero in response to coronavirus crisis, risks to economic outlook
  • says expects target interest rate will remain in range of 0 and 0.25% until economy has “weathered recent events” and is on track to meet inflation and employment goals
  • says crisis has “harmed communities and disrupted economic activity” in u.s. and other countries, will weigh on activity in the near term
  • says will use “full range of tools” to support economy, will expand holdings of treasury securities by $500 bln and mortgage backed securities by $200 bln in coming months
  • vote on policy action was 9 to 1, with Cleveland fed president Loretta Mester preferring a smaller interest rate cut
  • Fed announces coordinated action with bank of Canada, bank of England, bank of Japan, European central bank and Wwiss national bank
  • Fed says six global central banks have agreed to lower pricing on u.s. dollar liquidity swap arrangements by 25 bps
  • says changes to central bank swap lines will take effect week of march 16
  • Fed and other global central banks will begin offering u.s. dollar liquidity in each jurisdiction with 84-day maturity
  • Fed says it will lower the primary credit rate by 150 basis points to 0.25 percent, effective march 16
  • Fed says it supports firms that choose to use their capital and liquidity buffers to lend and undertake other supportive actions in a safe and sound manner
  • says that depository institutions may borrow from the discount window for periods as long as 90 days, prepayable and renewable by the borrower on a daily basis
  • says reducing reserve requirement ratios to zero percent effective on march 26
  • says encourages depository institutions to utilize intraday credit extended by reserve banks, on both a collateralized and uncollateralized basis

Japan finance minister Aso was asked about the potential for intervention in yen

In response, Aso said that while he had no comment on volatility in the FX market he will respond appropriately depending on market conditions

In Japan intervention in the currency market is directed by the Ministry of Finance. The bojj Bank of Japan will take the necessary steps in the market, but the directive comes from the Ministry. This is not the case in most other DM central banks, where intervention decisions are taken by the central bank itself (there is often consolation with the relevant government department of course).
In response, Aso said that while he had no comment on volatility in the FX market he will respond appropriately depending on market conditions

USD/JPY: Intra-day range In 2019 narrowest since 1976; Where next? – MUFG

Can the low volatility continue?

MUFG Research discusses USD/JPY outlook and targets the pair at 107, 106, 105, 104 in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 respectively.

The intra-day high-to-low trading range for USD/JPY in 2019 was 7.6% – that’s the narrowest trading range since 1976 according to Bloomberg data. Taking the last three years the trading range has been just 13.5% underlining the remarkable stability of USD/JPY. 3mth ATM implied volatility fell to 4.99% in December, a record low underlining the conditions conducive to carry. These conditions helped keep the yen weak but failed to trigger any notable sell-off of the yen,” MUFG notes.

“In our view that is a reflection of underlying positives for the yen that will contribute to yen strength this year, even if financial market conditions remain relatively benign…We see limited upside for USD/JPY from current levels. The factors above will act to limit yen weakness. We do not assume any major risk-off event this year but the assassination of Qassem Soleimani in Baghdad on 3rd January is a clear near-term upside risk for the yen that has emerged as 2020 commences,” MUFG adds.

South Korea’s vice fin min says watching markets for impact of North Korea issues

Sounding a warning for volatility related to NK missile tests and other geopolitical issues

This comes after North Korea’s state media KCNA reported on Sunday that the country had conducted a “very important” test at its Sohae rocket-testing ground. NK have previously agreed to close the facility. But, no, they have not.
US President Trump had words on the NK tests over the weekend:
  • “Kim Jong Un is too smart and has far too much to lose, everything actually, if he acts in a hostile way. He signed a strong Denuclearization Agreement with me in Singapore,” 
  • “He does not want to void his special relationship with the President of the United States or interfere with the U.S. Presidential Election in November” 

Avoid the pitfalls of ‘over trading’ and ‘under trading.’

* There are basically two types of over trading. Trading too often and trading too many shares/contracts.

* Remember that there really is no good reason to trade constantly, since extreme over-trading creates stress, produces high commissions and can often lead to more losses.

* Market forces do not last forever and time has shown various examples of the law of gravity in the trading market- that whatever comes up must go down. – and vice versa.

* Instead of grabbing every opportunity that comes along (or thinking that it is an opportunity) make sure each trade setup meets the criteria of your trading plan, don’t be over confident or scared of making trades.

* Utilizing a risk calculator to determine the appropriate position size before you enter a trade can help you determine how many shares/contracts you initially buy. You can start off with a small position and add as the trade continues in your favor. It relieves stress to know that the amount at risk for each position you hold is well proportioned to the size of your entire account and this is great asset management.

* Whenever you feel that you did not stick to your trading plan and made a mistake, quickly learn from that and let it go.

Risk Management

  1.  Risk of Ruin-Never risk more than 1% of your total account capital on any one trade.
  2. Position Sizing-Use your capital at risk to understand the right amount to trade based on the securities volatility.
  3. Capital at risk: Never put more than 6% of your total capital at risk at any given time on all positions.
  4. Trailing stops- Always have an exit strategy to lock in your winners.

6 Key Ideas For Traders

1). The typical trader who is struggling will look for outside information that completes the puzzle or “holy grail” of trading. Go and look at yourself in the mirror. This is the missing piece in the trading puzzle.

2). Mental rehearsal (of both positive and negative scenarios), positive imagery, inducing a relaxed state of mind, and developing daily rituals can help put you in the flow state of mind for trading.

3). The most important question a trader can ask: “Am I acting in my own best interest right now?”. Menaker explains why this question will help you define your risk and maximize your opportunities and trading results.

4). The very largest traders are focused primarily on risk management. Accepting and managing risk is a big part of trading. Some traders have difficulty following rules in this area. We should spend time learning about the mental biases humans have against suffering losses (see: Prospect Theory) and become aware of these showing up in our trading. Keep a trading journal to highlight awareness of these events.

5). “If I was forced to rank the importance of [various aspects] of trading, setups would be at the bottom of the list. Position sizing, risk management, and psychology are really what’s going to keep you out of trouble and ahead of the game. The best traders understand this and have internalized it.”.

6). You need to learn to do more of what works and less of what doesn’t. While it sounds obvious, many traders have difficulty with this as their unmanaged emotions are interfering with their perceptions and trading process.  

Teach Yourself to Be Great

Can you teach yourself to trade? Do you realize how important learning on your own is if you really want to be a successful trader? Everything about Kevin Bruce’s trading is self-taught. He started in the basement of the University of Georgia library: The school had old editions of the Wall Street Journal on microfilm. In the basement dungeon, he would compile his own record of the open, high, low, and closing prices for all markets. At the time, Bruce was actually working at a gas station at night, and between cleaning bugs off windshields and pumping gas, he had time to think and research–which is where he would analyze that price data. Bruce had a Texas Instruments handheld calculator that helped him sort through price data collected from the library. He figured out how to mathematically define a trend (in order to profit from its movement). It was a basic trend trading system. It was the same system he had used for the trading game in school with slight tweaks. Ultimately, it was the same one he would use with real money in the decades to follow.

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